Podcast Episode #30 – Living Ancient Cultures NOW with Brien Foerester

Podcast Episode #30 – Living Ancient Cultures NOW with Brien Foerester
April 17, 2012 Lainie Liberti

Question Everything

Seeking the True History through Archaeological Research

Episode #30 In this episode we speak with Brien Foerester, brilliant author & cultural researcher about the artifacts, folklore, rituals and archaeological sites left behind by ancient cultures.


    • Did you know the Great Pyramid of Giza was thought to be an ancient power plant? 
    • Did you know the monolithic ‘Inca” structures in and around Cusco, may have been actually built by descendants of Atlantis thousands of years before the Incas? 
    • Did you know the Nasca lines were drawn by two distinct cultures from two different time periods? 
    • Did you know there were great red headed travelers who settled in Peru and who may have originated from Asia? 
    • Did you know the great Moai heads in Easter Island are massive gravestones? 
    • Did you know the famous Mayan calendar was actually invented by a different culture?

Welcome to episode #30 of  the Raising Miro Podcast. Episod #30 contains an interview with noted researcher & author, Brien Foerester. (See below for his bio & links) We had the honor of meeting him in person last December when we visited the Paracas History Museum, home of the largest collection of elongated skulls.

This episode we talk about the ancient cultures here in Peru and in other parts of the world by examining some of the fascinating clues they’ve left behind. Miro and I are learning together, and admittedly this is one of my interests, but he can’t help but to learn too….

“History cannot give us a program for the future, but it can give us a fuller understanding of ourselves, and of our common humanity, so that we can better face the future.” 

~Robert Penn Warren

I am always curious! When we are interested in a subject, we ask questions and that’s interest-led learning.

I have always been fascinated by the mystique of ancient cultures, and one of the ways I’ve learned has been through asking questions. On our travels, we’ve have learned so many things that are not found in academic books about the subject. We’ve learned through a process of inquiry, asking people to share with us their cultural knowledge as a cultural exchange. In Cozumel Mexico,  we were speaking with a man of Mayan descendant who also happened to be our host. We talked a lot about the traditions of his ancestors told through lore. He shared with us, a little known fact. During the Maya Pre-Classic Period  the Mayan people traditionally trained their eyes to permanently be cross-eyed from a young age by placing a bead in between the  of the child’s eyes and training him to stare for hours.

Scholars believed the Mayans trained their eyes to become crossed-eyed for aesthetic reasons. But we were told that was simply not true. Miro and I learned that purpose of cross-eyes was so that the people could enhance their ability to see peripherally and the Mayans believed the eyes actually limited their vision.  The early Mayans wanted to see the way their ancestors saw, who were believed to have he ability to see beyond their physical eyes. And of course, he told us about the true origin of those ancestors, they came from the stars…

“The art and science of asking questions is the source of all knowledge.”
~Thomas Berger

As we approach 2012, the impact indigenous cultures have left on the modern world is NOT in question. Here in Peru, artifacts have been dated as far back as 11,000 BC.  To believe, there were thriving cultures almost 13,000 years ago blows my mind. (!!!!) Most of the world thinks of the Incas as the rulers of ancient Peru, but their culture started around 1300 AD, only about 700 years ago. Before the Incas, lived many highly evolved civilizations with advanced technologies including sophisticated agricultural and irrigation methods, cranial surgery, astrology and astronomy.


But one of the most fascinating artifacts left behind was the evidence of highly advanced tools, enabling precision cutting of massive megalithic stones, some weighing over 100 tons. Not only cutting them is a major feat, these ancient civilizations actually moved these stones, in some cases, hundreds of miles from the quarry sites. Then somehow, they managed to build massive structures piecing together these giant rock blocks with such perfection, not even a human hair could fit between the two adjoining blocks.

As always, more questions….

What tools could they have possibly used to build and move these megalithic structures thousands of years ago? Who exactly where these people? How did they develop such advanced technology? I wonder if the great pyramids in Egypt were built using the same technology?

I have recently read that pyramids were in fact power generators with no moving parts, only using water to conduct energy and that the great pyramids and other megalithic structures around the globe are build on specific grid lines. This information blows me away and as we continue to travel, I find myself hungry to find more information. So, Miro and I have been visiting these ancient places, we’ve been asking as many questions as we can and I’ve been ferociously reading and watching as many sources as I can get my hands on. This is Mom’s interest-led-education and I can say my learning never stops.

Brien Foerester

Brien Foerester is a researcher, author and explorer who has been fascinated with native cultures since he was a child. Already the author of several other books centered around indigenous cultures, the study of the Inca culture led to his writing his first book centered in Peru called A Brief History Of The Incas. He has written a total of 6 books on Peru and just released one about the Elongated Skulls of Paracas which he co-authored with David  Hatcher Childress called  The Enigma of Cranial Deformation: Elongated Skulls of the Ancients.  Beisdes being a noted author and owner of Hidden Inca Tours, operating here in Peru, Brien is also the Assistant Director of the Paracas History Museum in Paracas.

In addition to his 10 books, Brien has made several appearances on the television series Ancient Aliens, and has been interviewed on numerous national and international radio shows.

Hidden Inca Toursbr
Hidden Inca Videos
Paracas History Museum in Paracas

Twitter: @hiddenincatours
Facebook: Hidden Inca Tours

In this podcast, Brien answers these questions + more:

How many types of skulls do you have at the Paracas History Museum?

Do you believe some of them of non-human origin?

Are there other examples of elongated skulls across the globe ?

Is there a difference in the brain capacity between normal humans and those with elongated skulls?

What is the relationship between the Paracas and the Nazca people?

What do you think the purpose was of the Nazca designs?

How do the Paracas cultures that relate to the Incas?

How do you think the great megalith rocks were cut at Puma Punku?

You were recently visited Rapanui , and have toured the Moai – do you think the huge rocks were carved using the same techniques?

What do you think the greatest challenge is now, in regards to mainstream archeology points of view?

Why do you think mainstream’s version of ancient cultures is so dangerous?

What recommendations would you have for amateur cultural anthropologists or truth seeker?


As I shared earlier, I am so fascinated by the clues the artifacts have given us in terms of the culture and ancient civilations here and Peru. Here are some of the highlights from Wikipedia about Peru’s history:

  • Hunting tools dating back to more than 11,000 years have been found inside the caves of Pachacamac, Telarmachay, Junin and Lauricocha.
  • Some of the oldest civilizations appeared circa 6000 BC in the coastal provinces of Chilca and Paracas, and in the highland province of Callejón de Huaylas.
  • The first known city in all of the America was Caral, located in the Supe Valley 200 km north of Lima. It is the oldest city in America and was built in approximately 2500 BC.What is left from the civilization, also called Norte Chico, are about 30 pyramidical structures built up in receding terraces ending in a flat roof; some of them measured up to 20 meters in height. Caral is one of six world centers of the rise of civilization.
  • In the early 21st century, archeologists have discovered new evidence of ancient pre-Ceramic complex cultures.
  • In 2005 Tom D. Dillehay and his team announced the discovery of three irrigation canals that were 5400 years old, and a possible fourth that is 6700 years old, all in the Zaña Valley in northern Peru, evidence of community activity to support improved agriculture at a much earlier date than previously believed.
  • In 2006, Robert Benfer and a research team discovered a 4200-year-old observatory at Buena Vista, a site in the Andes several kilometers north of present-day Lima. They believe the observatory was related to the society’s reliance on agriculture and understanding the seasons. The site includes the oldest three-dimensional sculptures found thus far in South America.
  • In 2007 the archeologist Walter Alva and his team found a 4000-year-old temple with painted murals at Ventarrón, in the northwest Lambayeque region. The temple contained ceremonial offerings gained from exchange with Peruvian jungle societies, as well as those from the Ecuadoran coast. Such finds show sophisticated, monumental construction requiring large-scale organization of labor, suggesting that hierarchical, complex cultures arose in South America much earlier than scholars had thought.
  • Many other civilizations developed and were absorbed by the most powerful ones such as Kotosh, Chavin, Paracas,Lima, Nasca, Moche, Tiwanaku, Wari, Lambayeque, Chimu, Chan Chan, and Chincha, among others.
  • The Paracas culture emerged on the southern coast around 300 BC. They are known for their use of vicuña fibers instead of justcotton to produce fine textiles—innovations that did not reach the northern coast of Peru until centuries later.
  • Coastal cultures such as the Moche and Nazca flourished from about 100 BC to about AD 700: the Moche produced impressive metalwork, as well as some of the finest pottery seen in the ancient world, while the Nazca are known for their textiles and the enigmatic Nazca lines.
  • These coastal cultures eventually began to decline as a result of recurring el Niño floods and droughts. In consequence, the Huari and Tiwanaku, who dwelt inland in the Andes became the predominant cultures of the region encompassing much of modern-day Peru and Bolivia. They were succeeded by powerful city-states, such as Chancay, Sipan, and Cajamarca, and two empires: Chimor and Chachapoyas culture These cultures developed relatively advanced techniques of cultivation, gold and silver craft, pottery, metallurgy, and knitting.
  • Around 700 BC, they appear to have developed systems of social organization that were the precursors of the Inca civilization.
  • Not all Andean cultures were willing to offer their loyalty to the Incas as the Incas expanded their empire, and many were openly hostile. The people of the Chachapoyas culture were an example of this, but the Inca eventually conquered and integrated them into their empire.

Puru’s Timeline

Referenced from here.

20,000-10,000 BC The earliest settlers, most likely migrants from Asia, arrive in Peru.
3000 BC Cotton is first cultivated in Peru.
1000 BC Rise of Chavín cult in the central Andes.
900 BC Establishment of Chavín de Huántar.
700 BC Rise of Paracas culture in the southern desert.
300 BC-700 AD Rise of Nazca culture; Nazca Lines drawn.
100 BC Earliest burials at Paracas Necropolis.
200 AD Consolidation of Moche Dynasty in northern Peru.
300 AD Burial of Lord of Sipán.
375-500 Rise of the Huari-Tiahuanaco Empire.
900 Lambayeque and Cajamarca cultures appear in the northern Andes.
1000 Appearance of the Chimú culture.
1150 Construction of Chan Chan begins.
1200 Chimú and Chancay cultures established; Manco Cápac becomes the first Inca (emperor) and founds the Inca Empire.
1300 Ica-Chincha culture flourishes in south-central Peru.
1350 Inca Roca (6th Inca) establishes Cusco dynasty.
1375 Chimú takeover of Moche territory.
1400 Tschudi Palace at Chan Chan built.
1438 Reign of the Inca Pachacútec; Sacsayhuamán & Machu Picchu are built.
1460 Inca conquest of southern desert coast.
1465 Incas dominate the territory from the northern Andes to Ecuador.
1527 Epidemic of smallpox fells the Inca Huayna Cápac. Before his death, the Inca divided the empire in two, giving the northern territory to his son Atahualpa, and the southern half to his other son, Huáscar. Civil war ensues.
1530 Francisco Pizarro’s third expedition leaves Panama and arrives in Tumbes.
1532 Atahualpa defeats his brother to gain control of the Inca Empire. Pizarro enters Cajamarca and captures Atahualpa, whom he jails. Atahualpa offers a ransom of gold and silver to win his release.
1533 Spaniards assassinate Atahualpa and name Topa Hualpa his successor (who serves as puppet Inca); Cusco is sacked and burned by Spaniards.
1535 Francisco Pizarro establishes Lima and makes it the capital of the Viceroyalty of Peru.
1541 Francisco Pizarro is killed in Lima.
1572 Tupac Amaru, the last Inca emperor, is captured and executed.
1780 Tupac Amaru II, an Indian noble who claims to be descended from the final Inca emperor, leads a failed revolt against Spanish.

Source: Frommer’s Peru, 2nd edition.

Other Raising Miro posts about the archeological sites in Peru:

The Huaca Pucllana Ruins in Lima

The Huaca Pucllana ruins, located in Miraflores, a suburb of Lima. The ruins at this site were originally constructed by the Lima culture. The Lima culture was a pre-Inca indigenous culture living in the modern day Lima area. The culture flourished in this area from roughly the years 100 AD to 650 AD. The Lima culture was quite sophisticated, employing irrigation methods to bring water to the desert areas surrounding Lima for agricultural purposes. The culture was also socially complex and had several elite and priest classes, which helped administer their population centers.

We have seen the remains of the largest pyramid complex in world. Yes, even larger than in Egypt. Can you imagine an ancient land where 26 important pyramids were built, along with enclosures and ceremonial mounds across a 540 acre sprawl? We can, we’ve seen it and these pyramids date back to 1000 AD. Astounding.

Nasca Lines
We’ve experienced the massive geoglyphs, pictures drawn across the sandy desert, images so expertly drawn at an unbelievable scale. So large these earth drawings are only viewable from an airplane or observation tower. These images of animals grace the desert floor and what’s thought to be ancient landing strips for aircraft make up what’s known as the Nasca lines.

Mummy of Cao
Then we saw a tattooed female mummy who, like the Egyptians, was buried in a tomb found deep within an ancient pyramid, just off the northern pacific coast. I was even able to see the fascinating tattoos, which still grace her beautiful mummified body after roughly 1300 years.

Elongated Skulls
We even saw what looks like to be evidence of aliens, when we visited The Paracas History Museum. We were honored to be able to speak with the brilliant Brien Foerester, author, expertand a contributing curator of the largest private collection of elongated skulls. He shared with us the history of the Paracas culture, then proceeded to show a comparison between several elongated skulls, some believed to alien of nature, other believed to be human or human / alien hybrids. We even have an article about that trip at our site, including a short video clip we took of Brien showcasing the non-human attributes of some of the skulls.

Supporting Raising Miro

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Thank you!

We want to take a moment to thank a few peoplewho have contributed to our travels. Your donations have helped cover our travel expenses and for that, we are so grateful! The people who have contributed to Raising Miro are: Ashley Hansen, Grandpa, Scott Van Pelt, Sashya Amee, Ivan Amador,Heather on Her Travels, Bradford Akerman, Tuan Vutran, Terrance O’Dowd, Eric Hammond, Chip Jacobs, Billy Horn and Sonia Kim. Thank you so much! Your support is heart-felt and much appreciated!


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To those of you who have supported us so far on this journey, the donations we’ve received and the wonderful words of encouragement. Thank you all for your comments and feedback, and please keep them coming. Thank you Hanna for giving us a wonderful professional boost with the intro & outro, engineered by Hanna Jakobson, music “Multilayered Timbres” by Dr. Pimp courtesy of CC (creative commons) license.


  1. Goody 12 years ago

    Your post is so informative and interesting that I easily went through it without giving up (I’m usually not so fancy of long posts). To be honest the topic appealed me as I’m about to go pacpacking to Latin America and in Peru as well, so I’m collecting info’s about! any further info’s or tips about Peru (whay to see something I should avoid to do etc) are welcome

    • Author
      ilainie 12 years ago

      Thanks Goody! Stay in touch with us and perhaps our paths will cross!

  2. Eric 12 years ago

    Hi Lainie and Miro — that was a great interview with Brien. Your questions were excellent, and I found his answers and thoughts to be insightful. Thank you for sharing this podcast. Much appreciated. I just bookmarked your website — your travels and experiences that you share are wonderful! 🙂

    • Author
      ilainie 12 years ago

      Thanks Eric! I really appreciate you comments! Thank you so much for the kind words! Happy to have you along with us!

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